Skip to main content

Library

 

Reference in APA 6th

How do you reference in APA 6?

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Style, 6th Edition (APA 6th) is widely used in the social sciences and other fields to cite and format academic work.

Based on the APA 6 Publication Manual, this library guide provides you with examples of in-text and reference list citations for some of the most common sources of information you might use in assessment tasks. If you are using citation tools or referencing software, these examples will also help you format these references correctly.

In-text citations contain the author’s surname or the name of an organisation followed by the year of publication. You must also include the page number if using a direct quote. Here are some examples:

Reference citation: paraphrasing or summarising in your own words

At the end of the sentence:

  • Long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
  • Research indicates that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person (Youssef, 2013).
  • Young people can be significantly affected through long-term unemployment (Youssef, 2013, as cited in Barlow, 2016).*

At the beginning of the sentence:

  • Youssef (2013) argues that long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.
  • According to Youssef (2013), long-term unemployment can have significant effects on a young person.
  • Youssef (2013) identified significant effects on youth who are facing ongoing unemployment (as cited in Barlow, 2016).*

Quotation: the author’s exact words in double quotation marks and page numbers

  • Cololey (2015) argues that combining family therapy and positive psychology is “culturally sensitive, growth oriented, and hope enhancing” (p. 70).
  • In other words, beginning counsellors "often have problems in distinguishing between thoughts and feelings” (Geldard & Geldard, 2012, p. 62).
  • It has been argued that a combination of positive psychology and family therapy can provide a “culturally sensitive, growth oriented, and hope enhancing“ therapeutic intervention (Cololey, 2015, p. 70, as cited in McDonald & White, 2017, p. 54).*
  • Geldard and Geldard (2012) noted that “trainee counsellors encountered problems when trying to differentiate cognitions from emotions“ (as cited in McDonald & White, 2017, p. 93).*

* Note that the 6th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) cautions that secondary sources should be used only when the original source is out of print, unavailable, or not available in English.

Any sources you refer to in-text must appear in the reference list and the reference list must only contain sources you have referred to in-text. Different types of resources are referenced in slightly different ways but usually have the same four basic ingredients. These include:

  1. Author
  2. Date
  3. Title information
  4. Publication details.

Formatting the Reference List

  1. Start on a new page and type the title 'References' top and centred
  2. Ensure your whole assignment is in Times New Roman and size 12 font
  3. Ensure that the reference list is doubled spaced throughout (no extra space for each source)
  4. Start each entry (i.e. source) on a new line. Do not press enter in the middle of an entry, only at the end.
  5. List the sources in alphabetical order according to the first author's surname
  6. Apply the hanging indent to the page i.e. the second and subsequent line of each source is indented (1.25cm).
Loading ...