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Reference in APA 6th

Other Sources: Verbatim, Personal Communication & Speeches

Sometimes you may be quoting verbatim passages from audiovisual resources or your own videos. Please note your educator will give you specific guidance on how to format verbatim passages in the script style.  However, here are some examples including authors, dates and ​timestamps. For more information see page 179 of the Publication Manual.

Narrative Style

From a published work:

The client said, "My days are getting better"  (Smith, Jones & Rani, 2014, 00:20:40).

See the Audio-Visual tab in this guide for information about formatting the reference list entry.

 

From your own recordings (unpublished recording):

During the session, I stated, “Today is a beautiful day, yes?” Client 1 responded, "Yes, it was a very pleasant walk from the station" (personal communication, October 26, 2016, 00:14:41).

You will not need a reference list entry if you are using an unpublished recording.

 

Script style

When you what to convey a conversation, it is appropriate to use the script formatting.   This time you do not use quotation marks.

From a published work:

The characters in the movie In the Day and at Night (Smith, Jones & Rani, 2014, 1:20:30) discussed silence in the session.

Counsellor:     What have you been thinking about?

Client:             I don't know what do you mean.

See the Audio-Visual tab in this guide for information about formatting the reference list entry.

 

From your own recordings (unpublished recording):

The session with client 1 began in the following way (personal communication, October 26, 2016, 00:14:41).

Counsellor:     Today is a beautiful day, yes?

Client:             Yes, it was a very pleasant walk from the station.

You will not need a reference list entry if you are using an unpublished recording.

Personal communications are not included in the reference list, as they do not provide recoverable data.

Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible. Page numbers are not applicable.

Paraphrasing

T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2010) suggests that a reflective and optimistic point of view and the integration of resources and personal strengths are necessary when thinking about supervision.

A reflective and optimistic point of view and the integration of resources and personal strengths are necessary when thinking about supervision (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2010).

Quoting

T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2010) stated that “it is vital to approach supervision reflectively from an optimistic perspective integrating both resources and personal strengths”.

“It is vital to approach supervision reflectively from an optimistic perspective integrating both resources and personal strengths” (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2010).

Most often you will be accessing live speeches and performances as a [Video file] or [Audio file].

Reference List

Gillard, J. (2011, July 10). Address to the nation [Video file]. Retrieved from  http://www.pm.gov.au/videos

In-text: Paraphrasing

The majority of Australians believe that climate change is occurring (Gillard, 2011).

Gillard (2011) stated that the majority of Australians believe that climate change is occurring.

In-text: Quoting

... "most Australians now agree our climate is changing” (Gillard, 2011).

Gillard (2011) stated that “most Australians now agree our climate is changing”.

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Other Sources: Student Portal, News, Blogs & Brochures

Print News

For print articles, you need to the indicate page number/s of the article using ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in the reference list entry, unlike journals where ‘p.’ and ‘pp.’ are omitted. The publication date is also provided in detail (Year, Month Day).

Reference List

Lee, J. (2015, October 27). Call to stop child abusers questioning victims. The Sydney Morning Herald, p.8.

In-text

Lee (2015) explained that children…

It was suggested that children should be... (Lee, 2015).

Online News

Reference List

Author, A. (YEAR, Month DAY). Title of news article. Title of Publication. Retrieved from http://homepage url of publication

In-text

Surname (YEAR) explains that…

…it was explained (Surname, YEAR).

Use the screen name for the author of a post if the author has adopted one.

Reference List

Patricelli, K. (2011, December 5). Eleven ways men and women deal with depression differently [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.mentalhelp.net/blogs/11-ways-men-and-women- deal-with-depression-differently/

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering other Websites.

In circumstances where the author and publisher are identical, you need to use the word ‘Author’ in place of the name of the publisher.

Reference List

Beyond Blue. (2015). Anxiety and depression: An information booklet [Brochure]. Victoria, Australia: Author.

Electronic California Board of Psychology. (2005). For your peace of mind: A consumer guide to psychological services [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.psychboard.ca.gov/forspubs/consumer-brochure.pdf

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering books and ebooks.

For academic assignments, it is not recommended to cite class notes or other material directly from your class space.  Preferably, locate the original source of the concept you are using, which can usually be found in lists of references or readings.

Reference List

A webpage from within the portal (no italics in title)

Navitas Professional. (2015, December 5). BESC1001 Preparation for academic study: Section 8 critical thinking skills. Retrieved from https://my.navitas-professional.edu.au/classes/mod/book/view.php?id=131387

A document downloaded from within the portal (use italics in title)

Navitas Professional. (2016, February 12). HLTEN505C Contribute to complex care of clients: Introduction to unit and eye disorders [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from https://my.navitas-professional.edu.au/classes/pluginfile.php/193379/mod_book/chapter/91779/Lecture%201Class%20notes%20PDF.pdf

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering other Websites.

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Other Sources: Conferences, Theses, Unpublished Works, Images, Tables & Figures

See the APA Style Blog for more information citing symposia, papers and convention blogging.

Reference List

Author, A.A. (YEAR). Title of work. In Name of proceedings/conference (pp. #-#). Location: Publisher. OR Retrieved from http://url

Jones, T. (2014). GLBTIQ students: From objects to activists in sexual health. In 13th Social Research Conference on HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Related Diseases Programs & Abstracts (pp. 19-19). Retrieved from http://e-publications.une.edu.au/1959.11/14217 

DeVries, I. J. (2015). Community volunteers in collaborative OER development. In Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning and Tertiary Education (pp. 145-149). Perth, Australia: Australasian Society for Computers in Learning and Education.

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering books and eBooks.

Reference List

Published:

Author, A. B. (YEAR). Thesis/Dissertation title: Subtitle (PhD/DBA/Masters thesis/dissertation, Name of Institution, Location). Retrieved from http://url if online

Unpublished:

Author, A. B. (YEAR). Thesis/Dissertation title: Subtitle (Unpublished PhD/DBA/Masters thesis/dissertation, Name of Institution, Location). Retrieved from http://url if online

Healey, D. (2005). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and creativity: An investigation into their relationship (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Gale, L. (2000). The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management (Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Western Sydney, South Penrith, Australia). Retrieved from http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/28037

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering other Books and eBooks.

See page 211 of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th) for more information.

Reference List

Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of manuscript: Subtitle. Unpublished manuscript OR Manuscript submitted for publication OR Manuscript in preparation, Name of University or Repository, Location (if available). OR Retrieved from https://url (if available)

Blackwell, E., & Concord, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Ting, J. Y., Florsheim, P., Huang, W. (2008). Mental health help-seeking in ethnic minority populations: A theoretical perspective. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Smith, J. D. (2007). Application for consideration. Manuscript in preparation. Retrieved from http://url

In-text Citations

Use the same format as shown in the section covering books and eBooks.

In-text reference

Use the artist's surname and year of publication (or copyright year) under the image.

Figure 1: Jigsaw head (Secular Policy Institute, 2015).

Note: It is a good idea to check if your use of an image complies with fair dealing for educational purposes.

Reference list

ArtistSurname, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Secular Policy Institute. (2015). Jigsaw head image [Drawing]. Retrieved from https://secularpolicyinstitute.net/project/the-worlds-most-effective-promotion-of-critical-thinking/

What if I can't find a title for the image?

Write a short description of the image and use this as the title. 

What if I can't find an artist's name?

1. Use the name of the website author (this may be an organisation). 

Secular Policy Institute. (2015). Jigsaw head image [Drawing]. Retrieved from https://secularpolicyinstitute.net/project/the-worlds-most-effective-promotion-of-critical-thinking/

2. If you can't find a website author either, use the title (or description if there is no title) of the image in place of the author. In this case, don't repeat the title of the image after the date, just put the web address.

Jigsaw head image [Drawing]. (2015). Retrieved from https://secularpolicyinstitute.net/project/the-worlds-most-effective-promotion-of-critical-thinking/

What if I can't find a date?

Use (n.d.) in the place of a date.  This stands for 'no date'.

Secular Policy Institute. (n.d.). Jigsaw head image [Drawing]. Retrieved from https://secularpolicyinstitute.net/project/the-worlds-most-effective-promotion-of-critical-thinking/

What if I can't find an artist's name, date or title?

Use a description of the image in place of the artist's name, followed by the media type, then use (n.d.) for the date and add the web address.

Jigsaw head image [Drawing]. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://secularpolicyinstitute.net/project/the-worlds-most-effective-promotion-of-critical-thinking/

Important Note

Using tables and figures in your assessment pieces requires particular formatting and citation standards. Please ask your teacher or tutor for guidance when displaying results in this way.  ACAP Student Learning Support provides a basic introduction here:  

The American Psychological Association also provides the following resources. Please refer to:

Reference Lists

Images, tables and figures from books or articles should be treated like quotations. Provide an in-text citation in the caption, with author(s), year(s), and page number(s) of all sources used. The reference list entries should be listed according to type (book, journal article, etc.) e.g.:

Walker, S., Wood, M., & Nicol, J. (2013). Mastering medical terminology: Australia and New Zealand (2nd ed.). Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier Health Sciences.

In-text: Figures

Figure 1: Lymph node (Walker, Wood & Nicol, 2013, p.132).

 

In-text: Tables

Table 1

Summary of Studies Included in Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Rocking Out Like No One’s Watching ( ROLNOW ).

Study

N

Cohen’s d

SD

Atashin (2013)

384

0.86

0.63

Dumile & Jackson (2015)

176

1.21

0.95

Garcia, Homme, Oliveri, & Bjork (2014)

231

0.72

0.64

Iyer, Lehman, & Sorey (2014)

406

1.14

0.97

Onuki, Agata, & Hamamoto (2014)

127

0.63

0.41

 

Table 2

Sample Responses to the  ROLNOW  Survey (aDumile & Jackson, 2015, p. 31; b Iyer , Lehman & Sorey, 2014, p. 79; cOnukiAgata & Hamamoto, 2014, p. 101; d Garcia HommeOliveri & Bjork, 2014, p. 47; eAtashin, 2013, p. 56).

Variable

Question

Sample responses

Coolness

How cool did you feel?

“Cool as a cucumber in a bowl of hot sauce.”a

“Not at all cool. I actually felt kind of dorky.”b

Motivation/energy

How motivated and energized did you feel?

“I felt ready to take on the world!”c

“Not very. I almost fell asleep!”b

Happiness

How happy were you?

“I was completely elated and filled with positive thoughts!”d

“I was pretty happy, but I don’t think rocking out had anything to do with it.”a

Attractiveness

How physically attractive did you feel?

“I felt pretty, oh so pretty!”e

“I was a gyrating mess of flailing limbs, so I probably didn’t look all that attractive.”c

 

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