The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Style, 6th Edition (APA 6th) is widely used in the social sciences and other fields to cite and format academic work.
Based on the APA 6 Publication Manual, this library guide provides you with examples of in-text and reference list citations for some of the most common sources of information you might use in assessment tasks. If you are using citation tools or referencing software, these examples will also help you format these references correctly.
In-text citations contain the author’s surname or the name of an organisation followed by the year of publication. You must also include the page number if using a direct quote. You may, if you choose, include page numbers when paraphrasing to help the reader locate original passages more easily. Here are some examples:
Reference citation: paraphrasing or summarising in your own words
At the end of the sentence:
At the beginning of the sentence:
Quotation: the author’s exact words in double quotation marks and page numbers
* Note that the 6th edition of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) cautions that secondary sources should be used only when the original source is out of print, unavailable, or not available in English.
Any sources you refer to in-text must appear in the reference list and the reference list must only contain sources you have referred to in-text. Different types of resources are referenced in slightly different ways but usually have the same four basic ingredients. These include:
Formatting the Reference List