For specific examples and detailed formatting of particular sources, see the remaining pages in this guide.
The author can be any individual or group responsible for the creation of the work such as: single or multiple people, institutions, government departments, organisations or a combination of these. This element may also include editors of books, directors of films, podcast hosts, bloggers and so on.
Author, A. A.
Two Authors (use the ampersand):
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
Three to Twenty Authors (use the ampersand):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.
Twenty-one or More Authors (ellipses after the 19th; no ampersand):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.
Group Authors (do not use abbreviations):
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
The date element points to the date of publication. This element can take one of the following forms: year; year, month, and day; year and month; year and season; or range of dates.
Year Only (use in most cases)
Year, Month Day (use for frequently published works, news, blogs etc.)
(2020, August 26). (2018, July). (2019, Winter).
Unpublished or Advanced Publications
Approximating the date of Publication (use circa)
No Date (use n.d.)
Retrieval Dates (use only if the work is not archived and changes over time)
Retrieved September 30, 2020, from https://xxxxx
Same Date & Same Author (use lowercase letters)
(2021a). (2021b). (n.d.-a). (n.d.-b).
The title element can be split into two categories: works that stand alone (e.g., books, reports, theses, videos, films, TV series, albums, podcasts, social media, and websites) and works that are part of a whole (e.g., articles, edited chapters, episodes, and songs).
Works that stand alone appear in the Title section of the reference. Works that are part of a whole appear in the in the source section of the reference.
Parts of a Whole (Articles, chapters: Normal font, standard capitalisation and punctuation)
Red dust healing: Acknowledging the past, changing the future.
Stand Alone (Books, reports, webpages: Italicised font, standard capitalisation and punctuation)
Helping skills: Facilitating exploration, insight, and action.
The psychology of music (3rd ed.).
Nursing: A concept-based approach to learning (2nd ed., Vol. 1).
Bracketed Descriptions (use square brackets to identify non-standard works)
Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer software].
The source tells readers where to retrieve the cited work.
The source element is also split into two categories: works that stand alone (e.g., books, reports, theses, videos, films, TV series, albums, podcasts, social media, and websites) and works that are part of a whole (e.g., articles, edited chapters, episodes, and songs).
The APA Style and Grammar Guidelines provide these examples:
|Journal Article||Periodical title, volume, issue, page range, and DOI or URL||Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 8(3), 137-151. https://doi.org/10.1037/cfp0000121|
|Journal Article with Article Number||Periodical title, volume, issue, article number, and DOI or URL||PLoS ONE, 14(9), Article e0222224. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222224|
|Whole Book||Publisher name and DOI or URL||Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25513-8|
|Edited Book Chapter||Editor/s name, whole book title, edition and/or volume number, page range, and publisher name, and DOI or URL||In G. R. Samanez-Larkin (Ed.), The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood (pp. 9-43). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-002|
|Webpage (different author to publisher)||Website name and URL||Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-acidophilus/art-20361967|
|Webpage (same author as the publisher)||URL||https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/kinds.htm|
|Multiple Publishers||Separate with a semi-colon (;)||HBO; Sky UK; Sister Pictures; The Mighty Mint; Word Games.|
Chapter in an Edited Book
Source: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
Credit: Melanie R. Fowler, Florida Southern College.