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Reference in APA 7

This guide provides formatting and presentation standards in APA 7 for ACAP students.

Reference Elements: Dictionaries & Encyclopaedias

Author, A. A. (Year). Entry Title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work in italics: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #, pp. #-#). Publisher Name. https://doi.org/xxxx

Use this format for dictionaries & encyclopaedias published in print or library databases.

When author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the reference.

See the Missing Information table in this guide where authors, date or other information cannot be found.

See Section 10.3 of the APA Publication Manual for more examples.

Group Author

American Psychiatric Association. (2015). APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/14646-000

American Psychiatric Association. (2015). Canonical analysis. In APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed., p. 156). https://doi.org/10.1037/14646-000

Individual Author

Sperry, L. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapies: Overview. In E. S. Neukrug (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of theory in counseling and psychotherapy (Vol. 1, pp. 188-194). Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483346502

No Author

Conformity. (2016). In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 245-247). Gale.

Parenthetical Style

Canonical analysis refers to "any class of statistical procedures that assess the degree of relationship between sets of variables via interpretation of a limited number of linear combinations of specific values of those variables" (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2015, p. 156).

Conformity is different from compliance as it describes an adaptation to tacit pressures ("Conformity", 2016). 

Narrative Style

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2015) defines canonical analysis as "any class of statistical procedures that assess the degree of relationship between sets of variables via interpretation of a limited number of linear combinations of specific values of those variables" (p. 156).

Sperry (2015) suggests that CBT can be an effective treatment for various psychological disorders including anxiety. 

Reference Elements: Online Reference Works

Author, A. A. (Date). Entry Title. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work in italics: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #, pp. #-#). Publisher name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://url-of-entry

If entries are updated over time and are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference and n.d. (no date) in the date element. Online dictionaries and encyclopedias are updated in this way.

When the author and publisher are the same the name appears in the author element only to avoid repetition.

See the Missing Information table in this guide where authors, date or other information cannot be found.

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Humanistic-existential therapy. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.apa.org/humanistic-existential-therapy

Coronavirus. (n.d.). In Cambridge dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved April 8, 2020, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/coronavirus

Parenthetical Style

"Emphasis is placed on the client’s subjective experiences" (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.). 

Coronaviruses may cause respiratory infections in both humans and animals ("Coronavirus", n.d.).

Narrative Style

According to the American Psychological Association (APA) (n.d.) existential-humanistic therapy emphasises "the client’s subjective experiences".