Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

LIBRARY

Reference in APA 7

This guide provides formatting and presentation standards in APA 7 for ACAP students.

Missing Reference Information

The following table describes how to structure citations when sources have incomplete or missing information. 

Missing Element Solution Reference List Template In Text Example
Author Include the title, date, and source.

Whole title. (Date). Source.

Section title. (Date). Source. 

(Whole title, year)

("Section title", year)

Date Write "n.d." which stands for "no date". Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Title Include the author, date, description in square brackets, and then the source. Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, year) 

Author (year)

Author & Date Include the title, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then provide the source.

Whole Title. (n.d.). Source.

Section Title. (n.d.). Source.

(Whole title, n.d.)

("Section title", n.d.)

Author & Title Description in square brackets, and then the date and source. [Description of work]. (Date). Source.

([Description of work], year)

[Description of work] (year)

Date & Title Include the author, write “n.d.” for “no date,” description in square brackets, and then the source. Author. (n.d.). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Author, Date & Title Description in square brackets, write “n.d.” for “no date,” and then the source. [Description of work]. (n.d.). Source.

([Description of work], n.d.)

[Description of work] (n.d.)

Source Cite as a personal communication or find another work to cite Do not include a reference list entry

(C. C. Communicator, personal communication, month day, year)

C. C. Communicator (personal communication, month day, year)

Anonymous Sources Only use Anonymous if the work is actually signed “Anonymous.” Anonymous. (Date). Title. Source.

(Anonymous, year)

Anonymous (year)