Parenthetical Format. Quoted text is placed inside double quotation marks. The citation appears in parentheses outside the quotation and includes the author, date and page number (p. #) separated by commas. If at the end of a sentence a full stop is placed after the citation.
Patients with both depressive episodes and mania are "more severely impaired than those without concurrent depression and manic symptoms" (Barlow et al., 2017, p. 219).
The question then becomes, "What makes one person construe a situation differently from another person?" (Beck, 2011, p. 32).
Narrative Format. Quoted text is placed inside double quotation marks. The author is used as part of the text and the date appears directly after the author in parentheses. The page number appears in brackets at the end of the quote followed by a full stop if at the end of a sentence.
Barlow et al. (2017) point towards several studies which support the idea that patients with both depressive episodes and mania are "more severely impaired than those without concurrent depression and manic symptoms" (p. 219).
|Author Type||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Hill, 2020, p. 134).||Hill (2020) "quoted text" (p. 134).|
|Two authors||(Prochaska & Norcross, 2020, p. 12).||Prochaska and Norcross (2020) "quoted text" (p. 12).|
|Three or more authors||(Geldard et al., 2017, p. 111).||Geldard et al. (2017) "quoted text" (p. 111).|
Group author with abbreviation
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 21).
(APA, 2020, para. 3).
American Psychological Association (APA, 2020) "quoted text" (p. 21).
APA (2020) "quoted text" (para. 3).
|Group author without abbreviation||(Department of Health, 2020, section 4.3).||Department of Health (2020) "quoted text" (section 4.3).|
Note. Refer to the Citing Parts of a Work section for information about citing works without page numbers.
Quotes of 40 words or more should be formatted as block quotations:
These examples are sourced from the The APA Style and Grammar Guidelines.
Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:
Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)
Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of colour:
Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)
Quotations must match the source exactly as published. To correct any grammatical or spelling errors use [sic] in italics to identify the mistake.
Nowak (2019) wrote that “people have an obligation to care for there [sic] pets” (p. 52).
To shorten a sentence or tie two sentences together by omitting words from a quoted piece of text, use an ellipses. The ellipses should contain three dots with a space either side. If the omission comes at the end of a sentence include the full stop before the ellipses.
Nowak (2019) wrote that “people have an obligation to care for ... pets” (p. 52).
Use square brackets around an addition or explanation you place inside a piece of quoted text. When emphasising a word with a quotation, place it in italics and add the words [emphasis added], again in square brackets immediately after.