Generative AI tools such as ChatGPT change rapidly. We recommend checking this guide regularly for updated citation requirements. Last updated: 3 May, 2023.
For information on the appropriate use of AI, refer to the Generative Artificial Intelligence and Ethical Practice guide.
See also the APA 7 Style blog post How to cite ChatGPT for more information and examples.
ACAP requires you to acknowledge the use of AI tools just like any other source of information. To reference them correctly you must include the model in your reference list and cite in-text.
Their use must also be acknowledged in an appendix, which should be placed on a new page following references. Use the headings and format provided by the example below.
I acknowledge the use of [insert AI system(s) name and link] to [describe how generative artificial intelligence is used]. I entered the following prompts on Month Day, Year: [list of prompts].
The [following] output from the generative artificial intelligence was adapted and modified to the submitted assessment: [Full output may be included here if relevant].
OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large multimodal model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat
Ought. (2022). Elicit AI Research Assistant (Beta version) [Large language model]. https://elicit.org/
PerplexityAI. (2023). Perplexity [Large language model]. https://www.perplexity.ai
When prompted with "How effective is EMDR for trauma victims?" the Elicit AI Research Assistant generated text which indicated that EMDR is an effective treatment for children with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Ought, 2022).
After being asked to "explain the history of dogs and humans" ChatGPT generated text stated "dogs see their human family as part of their pack" (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).
OpenAI (2023) ChatGPT indicated that dogs are friendly towards humans.
The Ought (2023) Elicit AI Research Assistant summarised that "EMDR is an effective treatment for children with post-traumatic stress symptoms" (see Appendix A for prompts used).
I acknowledge the use of the Ought Elicit AI Research Assistant (https://elicit.org/) to generate citations and summaries that were included within my final assessment in modified form. I entered the following prompts on March 19, 2023:
I acknowledge the use of OpenAI ChatGPT (https://chat.openai.com/) to refine the academic language and accuracy of this submission. On March 19, 2023 I submitted this essay with the instruction:
The output from the generative artificial intelligence was adapted and modified to the submitted assessment.
I acknowledge the use of OpenAI ChatGPT (https://chat.openai.com/) to generate materials for background research and self-study in the drafting of this assessment. I entered the following prompts on March 19, 2023:
The following output from the generative artificial intelligence was adapted and modified to the submitted assessment:
Dogs are believed to be the first domesticated animal by humans, with the oldest known remains dating back to at least 15,000 years ago (Larson et al., 2012). The relationship between humans and dogs has evolved over time and is a result of mutual benefits. The domestication of dogs is thought to have occurred when wolves began to scavenge around human camps and slowly became more comfortable around humans (Hare & Tomasello, 2005). Humans eventually began to selectively breed dogs for specific traits, such as hunting or herding abilities, companionship, and physical appearance.
The role of dogs in human society has varied throughout history. In ancient times, dogs were primarily used for hunting and protection. The Egyptians, for example, bred dogs for hunting, and their depictions of dogs can be found on various artifacts (Gifford-Gonzalez & Hanotte, 2011). In medieval Europe, dogs were used for hunting, herding, and guarding. During the Industrial Revolution, dogs were utilized for transportation and pulling carts (O'Connor, 2016).
In modern times, dogs have become more of a companion animal. In fact, in many parts of the world, dogs are considered to be part of the family and are often treated as such. They are trained as service animals to assist people with disabilities and are also used in law enforcement, search and rescue, and therapy (Borchelt & Voith, 2012).
The relationship between humans and dogs has also had an impact on human health. Studies have shown that having a dog can have positive effects on mental health, such as reducing stress and improving mood (Allen et al., 2002; Wells, 2007). Dogs have also been found to have a positive impact on physical health, such as lowering blood pressure and increasing physical activity (Barker et al., 2017).
In conclusion, the relationship between humans and dogs has a long and complex history, with dogs serving a variety of roles throughout time. Dogs have evolved from being used primarily for hunting and protection to being highly valued companions, service animals, and members of the family. This relationship has also had an impact on human health, both physically and mentally.
Allen, K., Blascovich, J., & Mendes, W. B. (2002). Cardiovascular reactivity and the presence of pets, friends, and spouses: the truth about cats and dogs. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(5), 727-739.
Barker, S. B., Knisely, J. S., McCain, N. L., Schubert, C. M., & Pandurangi, A. K. (2017). Exploratory study of stress-buffering response patterns from interaction with a therapy dog. Anthrozoös, 30(2), 285-298.
Borchelt, P. L., & Voith, V. L. (2012). Readings in veterinary behavior medicine: Clinical applications and research. John Wiley & Sons.
Gifford-Gonzalez, D., & Hanotte, O. (2011). Domesticating animals in Africa: Implications of genetic and archaeological findings. Journal of World Prehistory, 24(1), 1-23.
Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2005). Human-like social skills in dogs?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(9), 439-444.