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Reference in APA 7

This guide provides formatting and presentation standards in APA 7 for ACAP students.

Reference List Entries: Basic Principles

Author. (Date). Stand alone title in italics. Source.

Author. (Date). Title of part or section of the whole. Title of the whole work in italics. Source.

Any sources you refer to in-text must appear in the reference list and the reference list must only contain sources you have referred to in-text. Different types of resources are referenced in slightly different ways but usually have the same four basic ingredients. These include:

Author The person, persons, and/or group responsible for the work
Date The date the work was published (or the indicator “n.d.” if no date of publication is available)
Title The title of the work being cited
Source The location where readers can retrieve the cited work


Acceptable abbreviations to use in your citations include:

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
[ca. YEAR] Circa (estimated date) -  [ca. 1894]
ed. edition - (2nd ed.). (3rd ed.) (4th ed.). 
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd Aust. ed. second Australian edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors) - J. M. Edwards (Ed.). Smith, K., & Jones, D. (eds.).
Trans. Translator(s) - T. L. Tarkovsky (Trans.). 
n.d. no date - Department of Health (n.d.)
p. or pp. page or page range - (p. 21) or (pp. 21-34)
Vol. Volume - (Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes - (Vols. 1-4)
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement

Inclusions & Exclusions

Almost all in-text citations will appear in the reference list. It pays to double check your assessment pieces to ensure there are not any missing reference entries. The following sources will not require reference list entires, as they are too difficult to recover or are too broadly used to require a specific entry:

Personal communications Emails, phone calls, text messages, or person-to-person communications.
General mentions  Websites, whole periodicals, or apps (Include a full reference if more than a general mention)
Epigraphs Inspirational quotes or inscriptions that set the stage for a work but do not contribute to the assessment topic.
Interviews Ideas or quotations from research participants, interviewees, or individual clients
Meta-analysis References which are marked with an asterisk in the reference list, may be cited in the text (or not) at the author’s discretion. This application applies to meta-analyses only.