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Reference in APA 7

This guide provides formatting and presentation standards in APA 7 for ACAP students.

Citation Variations

Missing Authors

Full Titles: To cite titles of any works without authors use: (Title in italics, Year).

(Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office, 2010). 

Sections: To cite sections such as articles and reference entries use: ("Section title", Year).

("Counselling", 2010).

Missing Dates

To cite works with no apparent date of publication use the abbreviation for no date, n.d. (Author/s, n.d.)

(Black Dog Institute, n.d.) 

Resnick (n.d.)

If the date does not appear on the item but is known from other sources, put it in square brackets [1934]; if the date is not known but can be reliably estimated, use “ca.” (the abbreviation for circa) before the date. 

Same Author/s

When citing from two or more sources of the same author, place them in the same parentheses, in alphabetical and chronological order. Separate years with a comma. (Author/s, Year, Year).

(Smith & Jones, 2001, 2005, 2013)

(Williamson, 2007a, 2007b)

(Department of Health, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)

Multiple Author/s

When citing multiple authors order them alphabetically then chronologically. Separate sources with a semi-colon. (Author/s, Year; Author/s, Year).

(Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016; Smith & Jones, 2005, 2013). 

Major Citations

Place the author/s of a major citation first followed by a semi colon and the words 'see also'. (Author/s, Year; see also Author/s Year; Author/s, Year).

(Smith & Jones, 2009; see also Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016).

Republished, Reprinted, Reissued or Translated Works

In text citations contain two dates: The original publication date and the year of the republished work, separated by a slash. Put the original work first.

(Freud, 1900/1953)

Piaget (1966/2000)

Include the full citation (Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page#) every time you cite.  The only exception to this may occur when you are paraphrasing the same single source, multiple times in a paragraph.  If you introduce the citation using the narrative style in the first sentence, you do not need to include the year next time you use it.

APA's Style and Grammar Guidelines provide this example:

          Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person–organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. According to Valdez et al., these findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.

Works with the Same Author and Same Date

Citing multiple references with the same author name, which are published in the same year, are arranged alphabetically by the title’s first significant word, ignoring 'A' or 'The'. Add a lowercase letter to the date indicating the order of each source in your reference list. Add the same letter to the in text citation.

(Williamson, 2007a). (Williamson, 2007a, p. 122).

Williamson (2007b).  Williamson (2007b, p. 5).

Department of Health (n.d.-a). (Department of Health, n.d.-b)

Note. See also Citing Multiple Works With Three or More Authors and the Same Date

Authors with the Same Surname

If the authors of multiple citations share the same surname, use their initials even when publication dates differ. 

(J. M. Taylor & Neimeyer, 2015; T. Taylor, 2014)

If the authors within a single citation share the same surname, do not use initials.

(Geldard & Geldard, 2012)

Parts of Books & Websites

To cite parts of books such as pages, paragraph, sections, chapters, tables, figures, etc., use:

(Crago, 2019, p. 21). (Crago, 2019, Chapter 2). (Crago, 2019, pp. 21-29). (Crago, 2019, Table 1).

To cite webpages and other sources without pages use paragraphs or sections use:

(Department of Health, 2020, para. 12). (Department of Health, 2020, "More Information" section).


To cite video and audiobooks use time stamps (Hours:Minutes:Seconds).

 (Englar-Carlson & Rabinowitz, 2019, 1:20:04) 


To cite slide numbers and parts of presentations use "Parts", "Slides", "Sections" etc. 

(Australian College of Applied Psychology [ACAP], 2020, Slide 5) 

Religious and Classical 

To cite religious and classical works use canonically numbered sections or parts.

(King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Cor. 13:1)

(Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994, Part IV)


Acceptable abbreviations to use in your citations include:

Abbreviation      Book or publication part
[ca. YEAR] Circa (estimated date) -  [ca. 1894]
n.d. no date - (Department of Health, n.d.)
p. or pp. page or page range - (p. 21) or (pp. 21-34)
Vol. Volume - (Vol. 4)
Vols. Volumes - (Vols. 1-4)
No. Number
Pt. or Part Part - (Part IV)
para. Paragraph - (para. 4)
No abbreviation Section numbers - (section 5.14)
No abbreviation Section titles - ("Introduction to Counselling" section)