Running text (Author, Date).
Author (Date) running text.
Parenthetical Format. The citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence and includes the author and date separated by a comma. If at the end of a sentence a full stop is placed after the citation.
Growth occurs at every stage of life (Newman & Newman, 2017).
Case study research does not employ the scientific method (Barlow et al., 2017) although it is an important tool for qualitative researchers (Travers, 2001).
Narrative Format. The author is used as part of the text, the date appears directly after the author in parentheses. If the date is used as a part of the text, just separate the author and date with a comma.
As discussed by Newman and Newman (2017), growth occurs at every stage of life.
In 2019, Hiscock et al. pointed out that half of Australian children and adolescents who experienced mental health issues did not receive professional treatment.
|Author Type||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Hill, 2020).||Hill (2020).|
|Two authors||(Prochaska & Norcross, 2020).||Prochaska and Norcross (2020).|
|Three or more authors||(Geldard et al., 2017).||Geldard et al. (2017).|
Group author with abbreviation
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2020).
American Psychological Association (APA, 2020).
|Group author without abbreviation||(Department of Health, 2020).||Department of Health (2020).|
When paraphrasing or summarising using one source over several sentences or even a whole paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence. There is no need to cite the work again in this paragraph provided it is clear that this is the only source being paraphrased. The APA Style and Grammar Guidelines provide this example:
Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person–organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. These findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.
You must reintroduce the citation if the paraphrase continues across multiple paragraphs. If the paragraph or sentence contains information from multiple sources, then cite as often as required to make sure the source is clearly acknowledged. The APA Style and Grammar Guidelines provide this example:
Play therapists can experience many symptoms of impaired wellness, including emotional exhaustion or reduced ability to empathize with others (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002), disruption in personal relationships (Elwood et al., 2011; Robinson-Keilig, 2014), decreased satisfaction with work (Elwood et al., 2011), avoidance of particular situations (Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000), and feelings or thoughts of helplessness (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000).