Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

LIBRARY

Reference in APA 7

This guide provides formatting and presentation standards in APA 7 for ACAP students.

Verbatim & Transcripts

(Surname, Year, Time Stamp). Surname (Year, Time Stamp).

(Interviewee/Client, personal communication, Month Day, Year, Time Stamp). 

Interviewee/Client (personal communication, Month Day, Year, Time Stamp).

You will not need a reference list entry if you are using an unpublished recording.

If it is clear that only one recording has been used throughout the essay, use the full citation in the first instance, then just the time stamp for all subsequent in-text citations.

Time stamps use the format: Hours:Minutes:Seconds - 00:00:00

Narrative Style

From a published work:

The client said, "My days are getting better" (Smith et al., 2014, 20:40).

From your own recordings or an unpublished recording:

During the session, I stated, “Today is a beautiful day, yes?” Client 1 responded, "Yes, it was a very pleasant walk from the station" (personal communication, May 26, 2020, 14:41).

Script style

When you what to convey a conversation, it is appropriate to use the script formatting. This time you do not use quotation marks.

From a published work:

The characters in the movie In the Day and at Night (Smith et al., 2014, 1:20:30) discussed silence in the session.

Counsellor:     What have you been thinking about?

Client:             I don't know what do you mean.

From your own recordings (unpublished recording):

The session with client 1 began in the following way (personal communication, May 26, 2020, 14:41).

Counsellor:     Today is a beautiful day, yes?

Client:             Yes, it was a very pleasant walk from the station.

Audiovisual Time Stamps

Note. If a creator cannot be found use the title in italics as shown in the first example below. 

Paraphrasing

Effective communication in a workplace can end if a problem is not dealt with (Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office, 2010).

Grief can have a profound impact on person’s sense of trust and continuity (Scorsese & Lonergan, 2000).

The counsellor encouraged the client to keep an open mind and speak freely (Microtraining Associates, 2007).

Quoting (Time Stamp - Hours: Minutes: Seconds)

Often when individuals experience grief they can feel like they have “lost hold of any kind of anchor, any kind of trust in anything” (Scorsese & Lonergan, 2000, 1:30:02).

The counsellor repeated "be as open as you can" (Microtraining Associates, 2007, 20:09).

Personal Communications

(A. A. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year). 

A. A. Surname (personal communication, Month Day, Year). 

"Quoted text" (A. A. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Author (personal communication, Month Day, Year) "quoted text".

Cite personal communications in-text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.

See Section 8.9 of the APA Publication Manual for more examples.

Paraphrasing

T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2010) suggests that a reflective and optimistic point of view and the integration of resources and personal strengths are necessary when thinking about supervision.

A reflective and optimistic point of view and the integration of resources and personal strengths are necessary when thinking about supervision (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2010).

Quoting

T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2010) stated that “it is vital to approach supervision reflectively from an optimistic perspective integrating both resources and personal strengths”.

“It is vital to approach supervision reflectively from an optimistic perspective integrating both resources and personal strengths” (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, April 18, 2010).